Monday, March 8, 2021

D3v6 Pan and Zoom

Since D3 version 3 it's been really easy to add panning and zooming to custom visualizations, allowing the user to scroll the SVG canvas vertically and horizontally by clicking and dragging the mouse cursor around the canvas, and to scale the canvas larger and smaller by spinning the mouse wheel.

Simplest way

For the simplest case, all you need is to apply the d3.zoom() behavior to your root svg element. This is how you do it with D3 version 6 (d3.v6.js):

<svg id="viz1" width="300" height="300" style="background:#ffc"> <circle cx="50%" cy="50%" r="25%" fill="#69c" /> </svg> <script> const svg = d3 .select('#viz1') .call(d3.zoom().on('zoom', ({ transform }) => svg.attr('transform', transform))) </script>

It'll work like the following:

Smoothest way

In most cases, however, you'll get smoother behavior by adding some group (<g>) elements to wrap your main visualization elements. If you're starting with a structure like the following, where you've got a .canvas group element containing the main content you want to pan and zoom:

<svg id="viz2" width="300" height="300"> <g class="canvas" transform="translate(150,150)"> <circle cx="0" cy="0" r="25%" fill="#69c" /> </g> </svg>

Do this: add one wrapper group element, .zoomed, around the original .canvas group; and a second group element, .bg, around .zoomed; and add a rect inside the .bg group:

<svg id="viz2" width="300" height="300"> <g class="bg"> <rect width="100%" height="100%" fill="#efc" /> <g class="zoomed"> <g class="canvas" transform="translate(150,150)"> <circle cx="0" cy="0" r="25%" fill="#69c" /> </g> </g> </g> </svg>

The rect inside the .bg group will ensure that the user's click-n-drag or mouse wheeling will be captured as long as the mouse pointer is anywhere inside the svg element (without this rect, the mouse would be captured only when the user positions the mouse over a graphical element drawn inside the .bg group — like the circle in this example). For this example, I've set the fill of the rect to a light green-yellow color; but usually you'd just set it to transparent.

Then attach the pan & zoom behavior to the .bg group — but apply the pan & zoom transform to the .zoomed group it contains. This will prevent stuttering when panning, since the .bg group will remain fixed; and it will avoid messing with any transforms or other fancy styling/positioning you already have on your inner .canvas group:

<script> const zoomed ='#viz2 .zoomed') const bg = d3 .select('#viz2 .bg') .call( d3 // base d3 pan & zoom behavior .zoom() // limit zoom to between 20% and 200% of original size .scaleExtent([0.2, 2]) // apply pan & zoom transform to 'zoomed' element .on('zoom', ({ transform }) => zoomed.attr('transform', transform)) // add 'grabbing' class to 'bg' element when panning; // add 'scaling' class to 'bg' element when zooming .on('start', ({ sourceEvent: { type } }) => { bg.classed(type === 'wheel' ? 'scaling' : 'grabbing', true) }) // remove 'grabbing' and 'scaling' classes when done panning & zooming .on('end', () => bg.classed('grabbing scaling', false)), ) </script>

Finally, set the mouse cursor via CSS when the user positions the pointer over the rect element. The grabbing and scaling classes will be added to the .bg group while the pan or zoom activity is ongoing, via the on('start') and on('end') hooks above:

<style lang="css"> .bg > rect { cursor: move; } .bg.grabbing > rect { cursor: grabbing; } .bg.scaling > rect { cursor: zoom-in; } </style>

When you put it all together, it will work like the following:

No comments:

Post a Comment